The question, I would ask, is what is the difference between MMA type training and Kajukenbo training? In a nutshell, the core training could be very similar. The principles are the same but Kaju will emphasize that there could be multiple attackers and with weapons, whereas MMA will focus more on one-on-one combat. Both could emphasize self-defense, both could emphasize sport. In addition, there are many Kajukenbo schools that are also MMA schools. With the above said, I would like to add in a discussion about "alive" training. Alive training is a core principle in MMA, wrestling, and many types of training that utilize progressive resistance. See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aliveness_%28martial_arts%29 Now, while there is alive training in Kajukenbo, there could also be a lot of non-alive training, particularly in demonstrations. Predetermined attacks and counters are a big part in many Kajukenbo schools, and have been since Kaju was formed over sixty years ago. For example, a predetermined attack and counter could be something like: student one attacks with a right cross and left hook. Student two counters with a 45 degree step, kick to the groin, arm destruction, and right cross. While student two applies the counter, student one plays the role of the target dummy (just reacts to the hits but does not block or counter student two). However, is this non-alive (static) training now outdated in the light of MMA, wrestling, BJJ, etc.? It depends on the context. I've seen places, not necessarily kaju, but martial arts schools where the attacker just stands there while the defender applies multiple strikes (non-contact). This not only takes away student one's (attacker) natural reaction to protect himself, but it also can build a false sense of security for student two (defender). On the other hand, Kajukenbo is not built on the above type of non-alive training. The difference is in the level of contact. In Kaju training, you strike to stun or unbalance, in such that student one (the attacker) knows how effective the techniques are. If student one tries to overtly defend, they should not be able to because they will either be stunned or unbalanced. Of course, not every technique works well all the time, so there is another part of kaju training dealing with resistance. Here I will list a situation and give two answers: Situation is that student one attacks student two in a predetermined way (remember this is static training). Student two counters as per the technique being trained. However, at some point student one ceases to be the "target dummy" and fights back. 1) Common way of dealing with the above situation would be to turn it into alive training now (like sparring) at a predetermined intensity. There is no longer an attacker and defender but both are attacker and defender. Call it rolling, call it sparring, call it a wrestling or boxing match, etc. The key is that both are still "fighting" within certain levels of contact, speed, and intensity. 2) Old school way of dealing with the situation is something used in Kajukenbo. When student one (attacker) fights back, student two increases the speed, intensity, and contact until student one stops fighting back. The more student one wants to test out student two, the more student two will pound on student one, even to the point of possible broken bones and knock outs. Now you have two methods of training, #1 above is alive like MMA training methods, and you have #2 old school training. Both can be used and both, IMHO are useful training and should be included in training. Note that none of the above means that a student is not protecting themselves. Even when being a target dummy, one uses methods and instincts to protect yourself. "Always protect yourself" is a principle.