Ossification, which you brought up... "Ossification: The process of creating bone, that is of transforming cartilage (or fibrous tissue) into bone. The human skeleton initially consists largely of cartilage which is relatively soft and is gradually transformed into hard bone during infant and child development. The verb corresponding to "ossification" is "ossify." Cartilage becomes ossified as it is converted into bone. Bone is osseous tissue. "Os" is a synonym for "bone." The Latin word "os" means "bone" as does the related Greek word "osteon."" http://www.medterms.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=10397 Like I said, completely meaningless here. So what? You don't mean "Heterotopic ossification", then, great. So you don't think this kind of training causes "the abnormal formation of true bone within extraskeletal soft tissues." (ref: http://www.emedicine.com/radio/topic336.htm ) So, super. You are throwing around useless medical terms. I pointed out Wolf's Law (various spellings): http://www.google.com/search?hl=en&lr=&q=wolf's+law "Wolff's law is a theory developed by the German Anatomist/Surgeon Julius Wolff (1835-1902) in the 19th century that states that bone in a healthy person or animal will adapt to the loads it is placed under. If loading on a particular bone increases, the bone will remodel itself over time to become stronger to resist that sort of loading. The converse is true as well: if the loading on a bone decreases, the bone will be adapted and become weaker. Examples of this can be shown in tennis players, whose raquet-holding arm bones become much stronger than the other arm. Their bodies have strengthened the bones in their raquet-holding arm since it is routinely placed under higher than normal stresses. Also, astronauts who spend a long time in space will often return to Earth with weaker bones, since gravity hasn't been exerting a load on their bones. Their bodies have reabsorbed much of the mineral that was previously in their bones." http://www.answers.com/topic/wolf-s-law You stated my links were useless... I think you just didn't look them up. Which is a more useful term here, "ossification" or "Wolf's Law"? I provided these references already, however. I don't really see anything you disagree with then, at this point. Your major complaint now does not seem to center around this kind of training causing calcium buildups in soft tissue nor in the creation of arthritis, but simply this: "I fail to see the advantage of callouses on your knuckles or heavily increasing the size of your knuckles. LOL! When was the last time you met a cocconut that punched back? Again - there are plenty of people who don't train anything like this that can punch someone in the face and break their nose or bust up their orbital bone. " I already noted I avoid getting callouses on my knuckles. They aren't there. I don't need them. When I start to get tears which become callouses I stop and heal up. Callouses do help in hitting things. Are you denying that? I don't deny it though I do not build them up on my knuckles. As far as bigger knuckles go... I do not know if my knuckles are overly sized except for the one I mentioned. That was a training accident which was largely unrelated to this whole issue. I noted that. Like how I mentioned a piece of evidence I used which was ancedotal you went all over that. Yet, all of your evidence is ancedotal. And you don't admit that. What my knucles are now, after several years of training in this way... they are extremely hard. My fists are extremely durable. So are anyone else's fists who train this way. Untrained bone is spongy, trained boned is much less spongy and much more hard. I don't see why you see that as such a big deal. I guess it is, in a way. It is very cool to have. It is great knowing that you are trained for bare knuckle fighting. It is great to do it with the rest of the body. I do advocate iron body training anywhere you might get hit or strike out. As far as "hitting something that doesn't hit bag", good one. Everyone uses that. And then they go and hit their bags. That said, I use bags. I also use gloves. I love bag training and do it all the time. My bag is in my living room. I use gloves when I am healing up or just to practice hitting when I do not wish to work on conditioning. Rhematoid arthritis is caused by genetics. Regular arthritis, there does seem to be some link between that and some sports. arthritis and sports: http://www.medicinenet.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=54328 "Kamhi_Speaker As Dr. Zampieron just mentioned, there is no one case of arthritis. Research has shown that it is not just wear and tear that causes arthritis. Another cause that is talked about is traumatic injury, especially with osteoarthritis. Genetic factors may also play a part in a familial continuation and the development of arthritis. The causes are multi-faceted. They include the body's reaction to food allergies. They also directly relate to the health of the intestines, and also the infiltration of various infectious microorganisms, viruses, bacterias, yeast, etc. There is a particular mind set that accompanies arthritis. Stress plays a part as well. Certain kinds of diets make arthritis prevalent. The American diet, for example, has high amounts of the wrong kinds of fats and low amounts of the right kinds of facts, and it is laden with dairy products." http://arthritis.about.com/od/oa/f/athletics.htm "In an article published by Lequesne, Dang and Lane in Osteoarthritis and Cartilage, 1997, the relationship between athletics and osteoarthritis was considered. They concluded that osteoarthritis occurs prematurely in certain sports including: soccer rugby racket sports track and field long-distance running Joint overuse even without injury is the main mechanism of osteoarthritis. Researchers hypothesize that irregular or sudden impacts, heavy loads on the lower limbs, and pre-existing limb abnormalities or trauma increase the risk. Recreational sports done at a "reasonable" level do not increase risk, according to researchers." Personally, what I am seeing there is these kinds of damage happen from sudden, unexpected stress... as opposed to a consistent actual moderated and resistance raising type of activity. Can you get arthritis like symptoms from sports? Yes, and as you claim to be a sports medicine expert, I won't bother then to quote a source there as you know doubt already know that. Lest yet again you claim I am arguing "physiology 101" to "insult the readers". (I find such rhetoric really... stupid. The readers know I am answering your dumb questions only to have you come back at me with useless rhetorics. And for those who don't -- they do, on some level. As far as my resume... that has to do with nothing. I think you are basing the vast majority of your evidence on your own resume. I would rather you cite and quote sources then do this. And not self-referencing sources. I have already said I am a "security researcher". Is martial arts my field of research? No. However, I can not keep dogma in my research. If there is anything out there in my field which may be valid, I try and find proof or disproof for it. Is being able to strike harder in anyway effective? Yes it is. I think that is plainly self-explanatory. If you can break concrete bricks, imagine what you can do to someone's face -- or ribcage -- or whatever. We all know that. Does this help in the ring? I don't know, I will say again. It is obvious to me you train for the ring and not for, say, bare knuckle fighting or for the street. And good for you. I like boxing and find it one of the most effective martial arts systems out there. I do not hesistate to call it a martial art.