Japanese terms with kanji

Discussion in 'Aikido Resources' started by Dave Humm, Oct 2, 2006.

  1. Dave Humm

    Dave Humm Serving Queen and Country

    Aikido Glossary (for moving to the resource forum)

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    ai () meeting, harmony, unity, blending
    aihanmi (合半身) basic relation between partners: both have same foot forward (left or right),
    aihanmi katatedori 合半身片手取り)wrist grip, right on right or left on left, also called kosadori
    aiki合気)Meeting one's ki or energy with that of the partner
    aikibatto合気抜刀)sword drawing exercises, solo or paired
    aikibudo合気武道)budo based on the aiki principle, earlier name for aikido
    aikido合気道)-The way through the life energy to harmony/unity
    aikidoka合気道家) - An aikido practicioner
    aikido toho 合気道刀法)Nishio sensei's iaido school
    Aikijinja 合気神社)the aikido temple in Iwama
    aikijo 合気杖)aikido jo-staff exercises
    aikijujutsu合気柔術)name on the Daito ryu Martial art, also called aikijujutsu
    Aikikai合気会)organization and "label" for Ueshiba's aikido
    aikiken合気剣)aikido sword exercises
    aikinage合気投げ)aiki-throw, throwing technique
    aiki no michi 合気の道)aikido (michi=do)
    aikiotoshi合気落とし)aiki-drop, throwing technique
    aikitaiso合気体操)aikido warm-up exercises
    aite 相手)partner in training
    arigato gozaimasu有難う御座います)thanks for something going on
    arigato gozaimashita有難う御座いました)thanks for something completed
    ashi)leg, foot
    ate当て)hit, strike
    atemi当身)strike to the body
    awase 合わせ)harmonizing/blending movement
    ayumiashi 歩み足)alternating footwork, like natural walking.

    batto 抜刀)To draw the sword. Can also be an abbreviation of sword drawing arts or technique.
    bo ()A staff. A staff of any length can be referred to technically as a bo, but usually this term refers to the 6' rokushakubo.
    bokken木剣)wooden training sword
    bokuto木刀)See bokken
    budo武道) Martial ways/the Japanese Martial arts
    budoka武道家)A practicioner of budo
    bugei武芸)Martial crafts. An older term still used in some circles
    bugeisha武芸者) A practicioner or exponent of martial crafts
    bujutsu 武術) Martial arts
    bukiwaza武器技)weapons techniques

    choku) direct
    chokusen (直線) Direct/Straight line
    chokutsuki直突き)direct strike with the jo, like a spear thrust.
    chudan中段)middle level, compare jodan and gedan
    chudan no kamae中段の構え)guard position with a weapon at belly height. Also known as Chudan gamae
    chudan tsuki中段突き)strike at belly/solar plexus, with weapon or empty hand

    Daito ryu aikijujutsu 大東流合気柔術) The main influence in Ueshiba O'sensei's formulation of aikido.
    dan)level, black belt grade in budo
    do)way, also michi
    dogi道着)training dress, also keikogi
    dojo道場)training hall
    dojo cho道場長)head of a training hall
    domo arigato gozaimasuどうも有難う御座います)Thank you so much, for something going on
    domo arigato gozaimashitaどうも有難う御座いました)thank you so much, for something completed
    dori取り) Suffix version of tori. To take, grab or catch.
    dosa動作) Exercise
    doshu道主)way leader, head of a budo. Lit. Master of a way.
    dozo どうぞ)please/proceed/by all means

    gassho合掌) The meeting of hands in respect to the kamiza and to the anscestors in the art.
    gasshuku合宿)Training camp, lodging together
    gedan 下段) Low level, compare jodan and chudan
    gedan barai下段払い)Low sweeping block
    gedan no kamae下段の構え) Low level posture
    gokyo五教)Fifth teaching, pinning technique
    gomen nasaiごめんなさい)Excuse me /Sorry
    gyaku)Reverse, opposite
    gyaku hanmi逆半身) Left side hanmi and can also refer to two partners in hanmi on different sides.
    gyakuhanmi katatedori逆半身片手取り)Wrist grip, right on left or left on right,
    gyaku tsuki 逆突き)Thrust punch with opposing arm and leg forward,

    hachi) eight
    hajime始め) The verbal command to begin.
    hakama)traditional wide pants, used in aikido and other traditional budo.
    hanmi 半身) half body
    hanmi gamae半身構え)angled guard position
    hanza handachi半座半立)sitting versus standing. A situation commonly found in Daito-ryu aikijujutsu, aikido and koryu bujutsu.
    hantai 反対)opposed
    happo八方)eight directions,
    harai/barai払い)sweep away, parry
    hasso gaeshi八相返)jo-staff technique
    hasso no kamae八相の構え)guard with weapon at shoulder level
    henka waza変化技) Technique variations.
    hidari ) left (right: migi)
    hiji )elbow
    hijidori肘取り)grip on elbow
    hijikime osae 肘極め押さえ)pinning technique, sometimes called rokkyo
    hiki 引き) From the verb "hiku", to pull
    hineri 捻り)Twist. From the verb "hineru".
    hito e mi一重身)making the body small, guard position, more triangular than hanmi
    hiza )knee
    ho)direction, side
    hombu本部)head quarters
    Hombu dojo本部道場)headquarters dojo
    Last edited: Oct 2, 2006
  2. Kogusoku

    Kogusoku 髭また伸びた! Supporter



    iaido (居合道)the art of drawing the Japanese sword
    iaijutsu (居合術) older term for iai
    iaito (居合刀)training sword, usually not sharpened
    ichi (一)one
    ichiban (一番)first, best
    ikkyo (一教)first teaching, pinning technique
    ikkyo undo (一教運動)exercise of the basic ikkyo movement
    ipponken (一本拳)strike with one knuckle
    irimi (入り身)in to the body, inwards
    irimi nage (入り身投げ)entering throw, throwing technique
    Iwama (岩間)the town in Ibarai prefecture, where Osensei had a dojo and a home.
    Iwama ryu (岩間流)Saito Morihiro sensei's aikido style. Since Saito sensei's passing, his son, Saito Hitohiro formed the Shin Shin Aikishurenkai.


    jiyu-geiko (自由稽古) free training or practice
    jiyu waza (自由技)free technqiues
    jo (杖)wooden polearm of roughly four feet in length.
    jo awase (杖合わせ)jo exercises
    jodan (上段)high level, compare chudan and gedan
    jodan no kamae (上段の構え) High level posture, usually armed.
    jodan tsuki (上段突き)thrust at head
    jodori (杖取り)defense against jo-staff
    jo-tai-jo (杖対杖)jo vs. jo
    jo-tai-ken (杖対剣) jo vs. ken
    ju (十)ten
    ju (柔)soft, pliable, flexible, gentle
    judo (柔道) the flexible way
    jujigarami/jujinage (十字絡み・十字投げ)cross throw
    jujutsu (柔術)the flexible/pliable art
    junbi taiso (準備体操)warm-up exercises, also called aikitaiso
    jun tsuki (順突き)strike with the same arm and leg forward, also called oitsuki, compare gyakutsuki
    jutsu (術)technique/art
  3. Kogusoku

    Kogusoku 髭また伸びた! Supporter


    kaeshi/gaeshi (返し)return, turn, reverse
    kaeshi tsuki (返し突き)reverse strike with jo-staff
    kaeshi waza (返し技)counter techniques
    kai (会)club, association
    kaiten nage (回転投げ)rotation throw, throwing technique
    kaiten osae (回転押さえ)rotation pinning technique
    kakae dori (抱え取り)embrace or bear hug
    kakari geiko (掛り稽古)attackers in line, one after the other
    kakudo (角度)angle
    kamae/gamae (構え)guard position/posture
    kami (神) divinity/the gods
    kamiza (神座)honorary place in a dojo,
    kansetsu (関節)joint (on body)
    Kashima Shinto-ryu (鹿島新当流)Koryu kenjutsu style that Ueshiba O'sensei and some of his uchideshi in Iwama trained in. Their names are historically recorded on the ryuha's eimeiroku (register).
    kata (形)form, pre-decided movements
    kata (肩)shoulder
    kata dori (肩取り)shoulder grip
    katadori menuchi (肩取り面打ち)shoulder grip followed by shomenuchi
    katame waza (固め技)pinning techniques
    katana (刀)the Japanese sword, also ken, to and tachi
    katate (片手) Single handed
    katate dori (片手取り)single handed wrist-grip
    katate ryote dori (片手両手取り)grip with both hands, also called morotedori
    keiko/geiko (稽古)training
    keikogi (稽古着)training dress, also dogi
    ken (剣)sword, also katana, to and tachi
    kendo (剣道)Japanese modern sport focused fencing
    ki (気)spirit, life energy
    kiai (気合)gathered ki, usually used for shout in budo
    kihon (気合)basics
    kihon waza (基本)basic training
    kikai tanden (気海丹田)the ocean of ki in the body's center
    kime (決め)focusing
    kimusubi (気結び)Tying one's ki to that of the partner
    kinagare/ki no nagare (気の流れ)Ki flow.
    kiri/giri (切り・斬り)Cut
    kirikaeshi (切り返し)Returning cuts in kumitachi. Is also a training exercise in kendo & kenjutsu
    kobudo (古武道)Older budo
    kobujutsu (古武術) Older martial arts
    kogeki (攻撃)attack
    kogekiho (攻撃法)Attacking techniques
    kokoro (心)Heart or mind, also pronounced shin
    kokyu (呼吸)Breathing
    kokyuho (呼吸法)Breathing exercise/breathing method
    kokyu nage (呼吸投げ)Breath throw
    kokyu ryoku (呼吸力)Breath power
    koshi (腰)Hip
    koshi nage (腰投げ)Hip throw
    kote (小手)Wrist & forearm area
    kote gaeshi (小手返し)Reversed wrist, throwing technique
    kote hineri (小手捻り)Twisted wrist, sankyo
    kote mawashi (小手廻し)Turned wrist, nikyo
    ku/kyu (九)Nine
    kubi (首)Neck
    kubi shime (首絞め・首締め)Neck choke
    kumi (組み)Group, set
    kumijo (組杖)Jo-staff exercises, jo against jo
    kumitachi (組太刀)Sword exercises, sword against sword
    kumite (組手)Free sparring, not unlike judo randori.
    kumi-uchi (組討)An older term for jujutsu. Some of the techniques in kumi-uchi are very similar to sumo.
    kuzushi (崩し) To break balance
    kyo (教) teaching
    kyu (級)Grade before blackbelt
  4. Dave Humm

    Dave Humm Serving Queen and Country


    ma-ai 間合)harmonious, balanced distance between training partners
    mae)front, forward, compare ushiro
    mae geri 前蹴)straight kick
    mae ukemi 前受身)forward fall
    makiwara巻藁)target for hitting practice in karatedo
    mawashi回し)revolving, turning
    mawashi geri 廻蹴り)roundhouse kick
    mawate回って)Vocal order to turn
    men) Head area
    Me Tsubushi 目潰) To distract the uke by attacking the eyes.
    michi)way, also do
    migi )right (left: hidari)
    misogi)purification, cleansing
    mochi持ち)hold/grip, also called dori
    mochigata持ち方) Ways of grabbing
    mokuso黙想)meditation,clearing of the mind
    morote dori 諸手取り)grip with both hands, also called katate ryotedori
    mu)nothing, empty
    mushin無心)empty mind
    mudansha無段者)trainee without dan grade, compare yudansha
    mune dori胸取り)collar grip by the chest
    musubi結び)tie together - connection
    nagare流れ)flow, streaming. Also nagashi
    nage 投げ)throw, also used for the one doing the aikido technique, compare tori

    nage waza投げ技)throwing techniques
    nana)seven, also pronounced shichi
    ni two
    nikyo二教)second teaching, pinning technique
    ninindori 二人取り)two attackers, also called futaridori , from the tasunindori exercises in Daito-ryu.
    noto納刀)resheathing of the sword into the scabbard
    nukitsuke抜き付け)drawing the sword, also called batto
  5. Dave Humm

    Dave Humm Serving Queen and Country


    omote)front, surface
    onegai shimasu お願いします)please, asking for something
    osae押さえ)press down, pinning
    osensei翁先生)great teacher, in aikido Morihei Ueshiba
    otagai ni rei お互いに礼)bow to each others
    oyo waza 応用)applied techniques, modified for efficiency

    reigi礼儀)etiquette, also called reishiki (礼式) or reiho (礼法)
    renzoku uchikomi連続打ち込み)jo-staff exercise
    renzoku waza連続技)consecutive techniques, a series of techniques
    renraku waza (連絡技) Combination techniques
    ritsurei立礼)standing bow
    rokkyo六教)sixth teaching, pinning technique, see hijikime osae
    roku )six
    ryotedori 両手取り)gripping both wrists
    ryu)school, also ryuha (流派)or ryugi (流儀
    Last edited: Oct 2, 2006
  6. Kogusoku

    Kogusoku 髭また伸びた! Supporter


    sabaki (捌き) movement/handling
    san (三)three
    sankaku (三角)triangle
    sankakudai (三角体)triangle shape, position of the feet in hanmi
    sankyo (三教)third teaching, pinning technique
    sannindori/sanningake (三人取り・三人掛け)three attackers
    sanpo (三方)three directions
    saya (鞘)scabbard
    seiki (生気)life energy
    seiza (正座)correct sitting, sit on knees
    sen no sen (先の先) initiating at the same instant as an attack
    sensei (先生)one who has gone before - usually applied to a person leading a class in aikido
    sensen no sen (先々の先)initiating before the attack begins.
    shi (四)four, also pronounced yon
    shiai (試合)competition or match, meaning to literally meet and test. The older meaning was a lot more serious; (死合) to meet with death.
    shichi (七)seven, also pronounced nana
    shidoin (指導員)instructor, middle title for aikido teacher, 4-5 dan
    shihan (師範) Literally means teacher. Japanese practicioners who reach rokudan are automatically titled Shihan.
    shiho (四方)four directions
    shihonage (四方投げ)four directions throw, throwing technique
    shihogiri (四方切り) Cutting in four directions, one of the kihon taught in aikiken.
    shikaku (四角)square
    shikko (膝行)knee walking
    shime (絞め)choke
    shin (心)heart, will, mind, also pronounced kokoro
    shinken (真剣) A live Japanese sword. Also refers to being serious in modern day Japanese.
    shinken shobu (真剣勝負) A life or death match. Teachers in Japan sometimes refer to shinken shobu keiko - Training as if your life depended upon it.
    shinzen (神前) front of the gods, facing towards the kamiza.
    shisei (姿勢)posture
    shizentai (自然体)natural body posture
    shodan (初段)first dan grade
    shomen (正面)front of the head. Also, the front of the dojo where the kamiza is.
    shomen ni rei (正面に礼)bow to head place of the dojo
    shomenuchi (正面打ち)cut or blow to head
    shoshinsha (初心者)beginner
    shuto (手刀) sword hand
    sode (袖)sleeve
    sodedori (袖取り)sleeve grip
    sodeguchidori (袖口取り)grip on the cuff of the sleeve
    soto (外)outside, outer, compare uchi
    soto deshi (外弟子)student who lives outside the dojo, compare uchideshi
    soto kaiten (外回転)outer rotation, compare uchikaiten
    soto uke (外受け)block from outside, compare uchiuke
    suburi (素振り)basic exercises with sword or staff
    suki (隙)opening or a weakness in one's technique or posture
    sumi (隅)corner
    sumikiri (隅きり)sharpness of body and mind
    sumimasen (すみません) excuse me/sorry
    sumo (相撲)traditional Japanese wrestling
    sutemi waza (捨て身技) Sacrifice techniques where you give away your position to exploit your opponent's vulnerability
    suwari waza (座り技)seated training, also called suwate. In jujutsu, usually referred to as Idori (居捕)
    suwatte waza (座って技)seated training, also called suwariwaza
    Last edited: Oct 2, 2006
  7. Kogusoku

    Kogusoku 髭また伸びた! Supporter

    tachi (太刀)sword, also nihonto, ken and katana
    tachi ai (立ち合い) training where both parties stand
    tachidori (太刀取り) defense against sword. lit. "Sword taking"
    tachi waza (立ち技)standing techniques
    tai (体)body
    taijutsu (体術)body techniques, unarmed techniques. Also another term used instead of jujutsu
    tai no henko (体の変更)body turn, also called tai no tenkan
    tai no tenkan (体の転換)body turn, also called tai no henko
    tai sabaki (体捌き)body move, evasive movement in aikido
    taiso (体操)exercises
    takemusu (武産)improvised Martial art. The unification of mind, body and principle in aiki. "The spontaneous execution of limitless techniques".
    takemusu aiki (武産合気)improvised Martial art through the principle of aiki
    tameshigiri (試し斬り)cutting test with sword
    tanden (丹田)body center, compare seika no itten
    tanren (鍛錬)drilling to forge the spirit
    tanto (短刀) Japanese style dagger
    tantodori (短刀取り)defense against knife
    tatami (畳)mat
    te (手)hand
    tegatana (手刀) sword hand. To use the hand to strike in sword-like movements.
    tekubi (手首)wrist
    tekubi osae (手首押さえ)pinned wrist, yonkyo
    tenchi nage (天地投げ)heaven-earth throw, throwing technique
    tenkan (転換)turn
    tobikoshi (飛び腰)fall over hip, break fall
    tori (取り・捕り)the one who takes, defender in aikido, also called nage and ****e (Pronounced "Shtay" for you wiseguys out there!)
    torifune (取り船)rowing exercise, also called funakogi undo
    tsuba (鍔)sword guard
    tsugiashi (次足)sliding step, back foot following and not passing front foot
    tsuka (柄)sword hilt
    tsuki (突き)to thrust with a weapon or empty hand
  8. Kogusoku

    Kogusoku 髭また伸びた! Supporter


    uchi (打ち)to strike or hit
    uchi (外)inside, within, inner, compare soto
    uchi deshi (内弟子)student living in the dojo, compare sotodeshi
    uchi kaiten (内回転)inner rotation, compare sotokaiten
    uchi gata (打ち方)striking methods
    uchikomi (打ち込み)hitting repeatedly
    uchi uke (内受け)block from inside, compare sotouke
    ude (腕)arm
    ude kime nage (腕極め投げ)arm lock throw
    ude nobashi (腕延ばし)extended arm, gokyo
    ude osae (腕押さえ)pinned arm, ikkyo
    uke (受け)the one receiving, attacker in aikido
    uke (受け)block, parry
    ukemi (受身)falling
    undo (運動)exercise
    ura (裏)backside, inside, reverse side, compare omote
    uraken (裏拳)backfist strike
    ushiro (後ろ)behind, backwards, compare mae
    ushiro kiriotoshi (後ろ切り落とし)rear cutting drop, throwing technique
    ushiro ukemi (後ろ受身)backward fall
    ushiro waza (後ろ技)techniques from behind


    waka sensei (若先生)young teacher, used in aikido for successor of Doshu
    wakarimasen (分かりません)I do not understand
    waki (脇)side
    waki gatame (脇固め) side armlock in jujutsu, similar to hiji shime
    wakizashi (脇差)short sword, also called a kodachi (小太刀)
    waza (技)technique, skill, training method


    yame (止め)verbal order to stop
    yari (槍・鑓)spear
    yoko (横)side, sideways, horizontal
    yokomen (横面)side of the head
    yokomenuchi (横面打ち)strike to the side of the head
    yoko ukemi (横受身)side fall
    yon (四)four, also pronounced shi, however is rarely used, since shi rhymes with the Japanese word for death (死)
    yonkajo (四ヶ条)older term for yonkyo
    yonkyo (四教)fourth teaching, pinning technique
    yudansha (有段者)dan graded, compare mudansha


    za (座)seated, sit
    zanshin (残心)remaining spirit, continued concentration. Awareness focused on the opponent after the execution of a technique.
    zarei (座礼)sitting bow
    zazen (座禅)sitting meditation, also called mokuso
    zen (禅)a form of buddhism
    zengo (前後) forward and back, front and rear
    zori (草履)sandals

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