I'm posting this here and one other place on the board, hoping that's OK, moderators. Here, because I have 2 daughters and one wife and I care about women's self-defense & safety issues. I made this batch of training aids for home use: 1) Home-made punching / kicking bag. Constructed out of rolled up carpet, duct taped to the desired circumference, and put it in a laundry bag which hangs from an attic rafter. I vary the hanging height for punching or kicking. 2) Home-made practice dummy. Constructed out of PVC pipe 'skeleton', carpet head, torso & legs, and duct tape. ( I call him 'Bob Berber'. ) The head is carpet and a lot of tape, torso is mostly carpet wrapped to human thickness, the legs the same. I dressed it in clothes and a skull / ski cap. (Only felt really weird when I was pulling its pants up ! Better than leaving them down, I guess.) Feet are PVC 'T' joints metal-strapped to a 3 foot by 3 foot piece of plywod. Glad to write out the plans and post photos if anyone's interested. 3) Home-made speed bag. Long athletic 'tube' sock filled with beans as a timing & distance bag. I can spar with it or practice speed strikes of all sorts.