Discussion in 'General Martial Arts Discussion' started by klaasb, Mar 3, 2009.
Well, the Three Kingdoms Period is right around the corner. Lets see.
Good stuff Bruce very interesting what's next?
Well....I had sorta hoped that there would be some discussion on the questions I raised in as much as the original premise was to examine Barry (Harmon)'s work against a kind of alternate working of the same information, if you will.
At any rate there is a kind of interim period during the imposition of the Four Commanderies and the beginning of the Three Kingdoms Period. Working on that right now. I hope to post that on Monday or Tuesday.
Yes...so was breaking wood...to penetrate armor...
Influences of Chinese growth on Korean Development (1766BCE - 108 BCE)
With the fall of GOJOSEON, a period of consolidation comes to the peninsula which may reflect the impact of a line of Chinese dynasties and their development. Here is a brief history of the developments in China that occurred during the same time frame in Korea as presented above - 1766 BCE to 108 BCE). People will debate which way the technology moved with the more nationalistic advocates of Korea suggesting that Korea invented everything. I share these developments in China by way of offering some national and international context to the discussion.
The Shang Dynasty (1766BCE – 1040 BCE) is recognized for its many achievements in Bronze work, writing and governmental administration. The Shang Dynasty was clearly a class structure in which burials indicate that military skills were valued. The Shang Army consisted of two main corps; one of infantry and one of chariots. The use of chariots suggests a strong proof of direct contacts between eastern and western Asia with the domesticated horse being used in Mesopotamia about 1500 BC, and evidence of its use in China approximately 250 years later. Below the aristocracy were the craftsmen, especially bronze-workers. (Indeed, the key to the Shang strength may have been built around their ability to produce massive amounts of Bronze alloys as excavation of the Lushang mining ruins in Hubei Province attest.) Peasants comprised the bottom tier of the society as a population of serfs that supported the upper strata of Shang society. The Korean DANGUN legend indicates that Law, medicine and agriculture came to GOJOSEON at this time and excavation of gravesites support the development of an early military science and organization.
The Shang Dynasty was overtaken by the Western Zhou (1122 BCE – 771 BCE). As observers to this event, the GOJOSEON administration would have benefitted from the following developments. The Duke of Zhou established a new capital at Luoyang while the old capital at Xian remained the administrative center. Wherein the Shang had legitimized their rule by invoking their ancestors, the Zhou modified this belief to invoke the "Mandate of Heaven" as a way of identifying the divine right to rule. The Mandate of Heaven was based on rules of good governance and the emperor was granted the right to rule by heaven as long as those rules of good governance were obeyed. The scattered rule of many semi-autonomous holdings are increasingly brought under the rule of a central government as a ZONGFA or "kinship network" though as time goes on the territory that is ruled is far too large for all vassals to be actual blood relatives. Vassals to the king enjoy hereditary titles and were expected to provide labor forces and fighting forces as circumstances merited. Each lord meets battle with his four-horse chariot and 100 infantrymen in support. The uniform requirements of providing manpower in relationship to the size of one's holdings may have formed the basis for the much-copied "well-field" system used by subsequent dynasties. In these many ways, the GOJOSEON kingdom would have been “validated” by their “big brother” to the south, and while the GOJOSEON king would still rule, the “Mandate of Heaven” lays obligations on him to rule justly and fairly and for the benefit of his people and not just his favorites or relatives.
As the Western Zhou decline, China enters into a period known as the “Spring and Autumn Period” (771 BCE – 471BCE) and the "kinship network" also declines. Control of many feudal holdings fall to feudal lords and knights, or "fighting gentlemen", (C. SHI). Unbound by family relationships, these men are free to aggress against their neighbors and accrue holdings. In addition, the first emergence of landlord/tenant relationships are reported for the state of Lu (594 BC). The use of bronze is widespread for coins, utensils, and weapons. However, beginning about the 5th Century BC, the use of iron is becoming increasingly frequent. First noted in the Shang Dynasty through the use of meteoric iron, by the end of this period the cast-iron process will be widely known, as is the earliest use of metal coins for currency.
The origins of Chinese philosophy develop with the initial stages beginning in the 6th century BC. Among those who had the greatest influence are Kong Fuzi (Confucius - 551-479 BC) of the state of Lu, founder of Confucianism and Lao Tsu, founder of Taoism. At this time Sun Tsu, native of the State of Wei becomes Chief of Staff and writes the "Art of War" which continues as a classic on the subject of military strategy. The impact of Confucian and Neo-Confucian thought will shape Korean thinking and structure down to the modern day.
Following the “Spring and Autumn Period”, the “Warring States Period” (403BCE – 221 BCE) in China sees increasing conflicts among the various states born of the disintegrating Zhou dynasty, and produce a period dominated by professional military leaders rather than simple vassals. Armies are massed formations of men and conscription, rather than land-holdings, determines the size of the army. Along with the crossbow, used widely for its greater force and shorter learning curve, the 5th Century BC also sees the introduction of iron weapons. By the 3rd Century, Cavalry, formerly an adjunct for scouting, now becomes a standard military arm.
The DAYE Mine in China functions to produce 400,000 tons of slag of which 50% is iron and an estimated 40,000 tons of copper and bronze are produced. Using a shaft furnace method of smelting, the Chinese produce an estimated 800,000 tons of iron. This method of using streams of air to smelt metal may have served as the source for Japanese "TATARA" (bellows) furnaces in the production of high-grade steel by transferring to Japan through Korea with the use of the pit and the box furnaces. In this area of development, Korea is no match for the greater numbers and sheer volume of production.
The previous progression of development will reach its highest point during the Qin Dynasty in China (221 BCE – 207 BCE).Though only lasting 14 years, the tomb of its single ruler, Shi Huangdi, at Lintong, is guarded by some 7,000 terracotta warriors which provide a representation of the state of military art at that point in time. The order-of- battle, rank and occupation of the troops are readily discerned by dress, hair treatment and laminar armor. Among the 300,000 weapons identified are bows and arrows, four-horse war chariots, crossbows, spears, dagger-axes and iron swords whose general use may have given the Qin army technical superiority over the bronze swords of its neighbors. However, the greater portion of these advances is used in a years-long campaign to unite the various states of northeastern China under the single rule of the first true emperor of China, SHI HUANG DI of Chin, “The Yellow Emperor”. It is the Han Dynasty (206 BCE – 220 AD) that seeks to turn the might of Chinese culture outward to its neighbors.
In Han China, economic development of the agrarian culture resulted in 3 significant changes in Chinese culture including advances in agricultural science and technique, interrelations among producers, retailers and consumers, and greater freedom of movement allowing populations to locate where conditions for success were optimal. Focus on economic progress furthers manufacturing including iron production, and causes Han forces to push back the borders enhancing trade along the Silk Road into Central Asia. The Han have come to appreciate the power of trade and the wide world outside of their domain. Confucian beliefs become increasingly influential raising these traditions and principles to the level of cult-like status transforming the former ethical treatise to the basis for a state religion. In 124 BC an Imperial Academy is established which focuses on the study of the Confucian classics followed by an examination. Successful scholars are eligible for placement in government resulting in the start of Civil Service exams. Fostered by Confucian thought and supported by a highly sophisticated military structure the Han seek to enhance trade by cultivating stability and order. Instability among the neighbors to the northeast is especially noisome as trade by sea is the most economical and these avenues of trade are harried by the predations of neighbors just outside of Han rule. In 108 BC, about the time that Rome is enjoying arguably the best part of its existence, the Han send an expedition to the area of Korea to establish four Chinese Commandries, in an effort to quell violence in that area and encourage trade.
While imposed from outside, the Four Commandries may well have provided the “seed crystals” from which the various Korean clans and tribes begin to consolidate, reflecting the administrations and technologies of their Chinese counterparts.
Confederation Period: (108 BCE to 18 BCE)
While not strictly an occupied nation, the various clans and tribes of the Korean peninsula, and areas immediately north of the Yulu River, are closely monitored by the presence of Chinese forces and the four Chinese communities established in the wake of the Han Chinese incursions of 108 BCE. From changes in laws and administration down to the adoption of Chinese eating implements, the presence of a Chinese population had a sizable influence on many aspects of Korean culture, As in the case of the Afghan forces, faced with the invasion of Greek forces under Alexander the Great, the Koreans were probably quickly educated as to the great advances made by the Chinese over the centuries and the folly of facing such overwhelming numbers and technology on an open battlefield. With rare exceptions, Korean strategy developed into withdrawing into SANSONG, or "mountain castles" during trouble times. Rather than fortified towns as one might find in other cultures, these fortresses were essentially enhancements of the mountainous terrain with low walls and embankments. During times of attack, local inhabitants would bury their valuables and come to the fortified areas for their relative safety. With the presence of Chinese troops in their country and repeated antagonisms between the Chinese and the Korean populations, it is reasonable to conclude that inter-related populations of clans and tribes began to coalesce around and near these strong-points producing small allied groups which gradually developed into small but autonomous "city states". Two such kingdoms were PUYO, in the area of the Sungari River in Manchuria and the three kingdoms of MAHAN, CHIN HAN and PYO HAN down in the southern half of the peninsula. As time progressed, certain kingdoms developed a viable class system and a ruling elite allowing authority to flow to those locations. PAEKSHE will develop from a small city-state of the same name, while SILLA will develop out of the city-state of SARO. all of these kingdoms established learning centers where martial, cultural and administrative skills were taught. The general curriculums of these institutions can be found in the SAMKUK SHIH (Veritable record of the Three Kingdoms) so we have some sense of what skills were taught. There is, however, there is no elaboration on how the training was conducted, no manual of what the curriculum was comprised of, or how techniques were executed. Of their weapons, however, quite a bit is known. Perhaps best recognized from this period are the straight-bladed swords bearing a single sharp edge and easily recognized by the metal Ring-shaped pommel, and the Korean flail, a long-handled weapon surmounted with a chain and large weight that could be used to fearsome effect from horseback.*
Source: A New History of Korea; LEE Ki-baik; Harvard University Press, 1984; pgs 19 - 35
It's in Korean, but has some good museum pictures.
Fabulous clips!!! Thanks!!
Three Kingdoms Period - (37 BCE to 668 AD)
Kingdom of Koguryo: (37 BCE to 668 AD)
Founded in 37 BC, this kingdom would last through 28 "Great King"-s or TAEWANG, as identified in the SAMKUK SAGI, until 668AD. Having limited distinct geographic features, the role of the PUYO kingdom for the Chinese Commandries rapidly developed into one of a “buffer nation”, offering an island of relative stability in an ocean of shifting boundaries and authorities. According to legend, a confederation of tribes grew around a disaffected PUYO leader, Chumong, and his followers. The area they claimed, in the Yalu and Tung-chia river basins, is already held by an established YEMAEK culture. The subsequent struggle for dominion includes the attempt by the Chinese Han to stabilize the area with the establishment of a commanderie in 107 BCE. Failing to stem the conflicts, the commanderie is withdrawn westward and the PUYO émigrés blend with the YEMAEK to produce the start of the KOGURYO kingdom. With its origins firmly founded in a direct conflict with China, and topography where uncertain borders required constant attention, the strong military character of the Koguryo kingdom is established. The ruling elite of the KOGURYO nation, even in times of peace, seem to have devoted themselves entirely to military training and held a marked pre-occupation with accruing land, population, domestic animals and other spoils of war. As a result, the Chinese come to regard KOGURYO as belligerent and fond of attacking their neighbors. With the importance of military prowess, KOGURYO develops a PYONG-DANG (lit: “educational institute”) where selected unmarried males could be taught not only military science but classical literature as well. This blending of military skill with the shaping of intellectual ability marks the beginning of Korean martial development and tradition. Cadets at this institute were required to train in the following methods.
1.) Politics and the Chinese Classics (Jung Chi Wa Ko Jun) 2.) Musical Methods (Poong You Bop)3.) Hunting and Fishing (Soo Ryub)4.) Swimming Methods (Soo Young Bop)5.) Striking & Kicking Techniques (Ji Leu Ki Bop)6.) Archery *(Kung Sa)7.) Horsemanship (Ki Sa Bop)8.) Swordsmanship (Kum Sul Bop)9.) Knife Throwing (Dan Kum Sool)The actual content of these methods and studies is not known to us, however, the cadets were thoroughly tested on their skills and successful candidates were held in high regard by the populace. Termed “SUN BI” or “intelligent and brave warriors” successful cadets carried a brace of five knives and a sharpening stone at their waists. Reflecting on the nature of the studies required by their culture, it is plain that KOGURYO military strategy focused on mobility rather than securing and defending fixed points. Absent is the use of such war engines as catapults and training in constructing or assaulting fortifications. Instead, training is clearly focused on the individual competence of each warrior to perform his duties to the best of his abilities for the successful attainment of the cavalry unit’s intended goal.
An attack by PAEKSHE deals a severe blow to KOGURYO during the reign of King KOGUGWON and reveals the need for greater sophistication in its institutions. King SOSURIM (371 – 384) adopts Buddhism for his people to provide spiritual unity while establishing a National Confucian Academy, or “TAEHAK” to upgrade the governmental structure and laws. What follows is a succession of military expeditions and successes that broadly expand the KOGURYO boundaries. In 427 the KOGURYO capital city is shifted to PYONG-YANG, probably for expedience of trade, communication and politics and military concerns. This presents KOGURYO as a distinct threat to the growing Kingdoms of Paekshe and Silla on the Korean peninsula.
Sources: A New History of Korea; LEE Ki-baik; Harvard University Press, 1984; pgs 19-35
Hapkido; KIMM He-young; Andrew Jackson College Press, 2001 pgs 52-53
Sorry for the quiet..... will get the Paekshe installment up ASAP.
There is a Shotokan school right down the road from me and there forms look a lot like the Tea Kwon Do a family member does. So did the Koreans teach the Japanese thier martial arts or is the more common story about the Japanese occupation resulted in the Koreans learning Karate?
The original Karate Kata proceed from OKINAWA-TE, which in turn proceeds from the Southern Chinese arts found in and around FUJIAN, PRC.
Koreans who trained in Funakoshi's SHOTOKAN and Toyama's SHUDOKAN brought the Kata back to Korea as well as a number of Japanese who taught these arts in Korea prior to the end of the Second WW. There are a number of Koreans who are very embarrassed that a.) a significant portion of the population supported the Japanese effort and b.) the Japanese lost the war taking the fortunes of some Korean families with them. This was not helped by the fact that a great number of political offices continued to be held by pro-Japanese collaborators well after the War simply as a bulwark against the Communists gaining a foothold in the country. FWIW.
Just curious how the Korens claim Tae Kwon Do is a native created art when they use Karate forms and learned Shotokan?
You're not going to like this answer but it has a lot to do with just people being people.
In the absence of personal growth, people function on a very simple economy associated with the accrual and dispersement of energy. In order to produce a given result one must either gather significant amounts of energy and/or disperse it in a given pattern. Both activities require a lot of effort and sacrifice and most folks are simply not up to the task. As a result it is easier to lie, cheat, steal, misrepresent, misappropriate and mislead than it is to simply rely on one's own efforts, toss the dice and accept the results.
There are tools that can be applied so as to uncover such behaviors (Ockham's Razor, for instance), but there is nothing that will prevent people from being what they are and acting on it as such. Not sure if this helps or not. FWIW.
Also, let us not forget face/pride.
It is an issue of national pride. TKD is the national sport of Korea and its main export. It is one of those things that identifies Korea as Korea. So, admitting that it is actually Japanese when there is still so much anger and hatred in Korea toward the Japanese would undermine the nationalist agenda and lead to a major loss of face. TKD came from Shotokan and still has the same core components as Shotokan. Most well trained martial artists and/or martial historians can see this, but pointing it out is like discussing the large pink elephant that is standing in the middle of the room. With time, it will probably be less of a hot issue and people both inside and outside of Korea will be more than willing to admit the truth.
Three Kingdoms Period - (37 BCE to 668 AD)
Kingdom of Paekshe: (18 BCE to 663 AD)
Paekshe was founded by ONJO, the 3rd son of JUMONG—founder of KOGURYO—near the present location of Seoul, South Korea in 18 BCE and would last through the reign of some 31 kings (“Wang”). By prevailing over other MAHAN tribes in the area and through a series of shifting conflicts and alliances with the other two Korean Kingdoms---SILLA and KOGURYO--- PAEKSHE came to control the western half of the Korean peninsula. Its control over the coast nearest to Chinese waters set the stage for its successes as a power oriented towards trade with both China and the Japanese islands. At its height, PAEKSHE could boast of established colonies both in northeastern China as well as the western half of Honshu in the Japanese islands. Such a position allowed PAEKSHE to benefit from developments in Chinese technology and culture as well as to act as a conduit for such developments to the Japanese islands. During this same time, China was experiencing a range of conflicts among small kingdoms, a dynamic which commonly encourages growth in military science and technologies. Arguably one of the greatest developments was the adoption of Buddhism as PAEKSHE’s state religion in 384, and later to be transmitted to Japan. However, other contributions included, but are not limited to
Chinese writing, mounted warfare, ceramics, advanced weapons metallurgy, and ceremonial burial. In 320 AD, King Bi-Ryu had ordered the formation of an institution for training the cadre around which the army of PAEKSHE could be formed and had mandated that archery would be practiced on the first and 15th of each month. Instruction at the institute also included
1.) Ko Jun (classical literature)
2.) Bool Su ( Buddhist Sutra)
3.) Jung Dai Beop (Defense Against Multiple Attacks)
4.) Soo Sool (Emptyhand Fighting)
5.) Kum Sool Beop (Swordsmanship)
6.) Mok Bong (Wooden Pole Fighting)
7.) Ki Sa (Horsemanship)
As in the case of KOGURYO, while the subjects studied at the institute of PAEKSHE are recorded, the actual nature of the material itself is not. In this way, again, it is known that PAEKSHE trained a form of Unarmed fighting, for instance, but what such practices entailed remains unknown.
In the 5th century, PAEKSHE retreated under the military threat of KOGURYO, and with the loss of the Seoul region to KOGURYO in 475, PAEKSHE lost its ready access to the sea and regular communication with China and Japan.
PAEKSHE fell to an alliance between SILLA and TANG China during the years 660 to 663.
Three Kingdoms Period - (37 BCE to 668 AD)
Kingdom of Silla: (57 BCE to 668 AD)
Beginning in 57BC the Silla Kingdom is ruled variously be the PAK, SEOK and KIM families and likewise had a variety of titles for the kingship position including ISAGUEM, MARIPGAN, WANG and YEOWANG. A succession of 56 Kings would head this state, though, like Paekshe, some of the kings would take the title of "emperor". Probably the best known of the Korean military learning centers was that of the Silla Kingdom which produced the well-known HwaRang warriors whose reputation has come down to us today. Like their brethren in KOGURYO and PAEKSHE, the HWARANG and their followers, the RANG DO, were highly schooled in both martial and scholarly pursuits including,
1.) Kung sa (Archery)
2.) Too Ho (Throwing)
3.) Chil Kuk (Kicking)
4.) Kak Choo (Throwing)
5.) Soo Bahk (Punching and Kicking)
6.) Ki Sa (Horsemanship including mounted archery)
7.) Taik Kyon (Kicks)
8.) Soo Ryup (Hunting and Fishing)
9.) Cho Chum (Swinging)
10.) Kum sool Bup (Swordsmanship)
Despite earnest research by modern scholars the precise nature of the HWARANG continues to be debated. However, documented history identifies a clear relationship between Tang China and Silla which would have certainly included the exchange of military science and technology allowing Silla to develop a trained cadre.
In 668 AD, the Silla Kingdom, both through skill and the assistance of the Chinese Tang Dynasty will overcome its other two neighbors and unite the Korean peninsula. Subsequent attempts by Tang China, in turn, to overcome Silla fail. As a result the kingdom known as "Unified Silla" is established.
the 'Goguryeo–Sui*Wars' of 598-614(wikipedia is my reference, of course) has really made me wonder whether the goguryeo king's mentality was a bit bullyish, or if frequent raiding of other kingdoms was out of the king's control. i am thinking about comparing it to the japanese pirate raids of silla kingdom's shores..... thoughts?
Hard to say..... certainly the Chinese had come to view that kingdom as "belligerent" but sorting out the motives would be pretty problematic. In the area of geo-politics, wherever there is an area with limited geographic features there seems to be long histories of constant warfare. This probably a function of not having identifiable borders for each respective domain. I can kinda see this with that portion of KOGURYO which extended up into Manchuria, and by extension, down towards China. However, this does not explain why there would be antagonisms towards PAEKSHE and SILLA where a feature such as the Yalu River makes for a clear boundary.
Another bit to consider is that there seems to be indications that the folks who invested farther down the Korean peninsula were pushed off of the Asian steppe by more belligerent tribes. I suppose the evidence can support that argument, anyways. The sense I get is that the character of the KOGURYO kingdom retained the greatest amount of that "steppe mentality" in which raiding and other agressions against one's neighbors ----as well as defending against such actions----was an integral part of the pattern of survival. I speculate that modern revisionists could easily attribute the recent belligerence of North Korean politics to generations of "KOGURYO DNA", but I think thats a bit of a stretch. My own guess is that the Korean Resistance Movement did not get much help from the outside world, save for Russia's bits now and then. As a result I can't imagine that there is any love lost between North Korea and the rest of the planet.
BTW: My personal favorite of the Three Kingdoms is PAEKSHE rather than SILLA. Denied trading routes with China through the north end of the peninsula by KOGURYO, PAEKSHE took to the sea and opened trading routes with both China and what would later be YAMOTO Japan. I think SILLA gets the lion's share of the recognition since "history is written by the winners", yes? But when I look at the research it certainly seems as though PAEKSHE was more disposed towards new ideas and technologies. IMHO.
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